Chapter 12 (Part C) Phenotypic tango of male ornaments and female preferences - watch a balance between selection and drift unfold

Figure 3. Evolution of male ornaments is restrained when sexual selection is absent.


Figure 4. Sexual selection exaggerates the evolution of ornaments and mating preferences, producing a phenotypic tango


Supplementary Figure 1. The extent of the radiation (dance floor) enlarges when natural selection on the preferences is relaxed.


Supplementary Figure 2. Stabilizing natural selection on the preferences defines the shape and the size of the radiation.

Supplementary Figure 3. A genetic correlation between the sexes is required for extraordinary evolution of preferences but not for extraordinary evolution of ornaments.

Supplementary Figure 4. Strong mate choice increases the size of the sexual radiation and the tempo of the tango.

Supplementary Figure 6. Simulated evolution of ornaments with a moving optimum but no sex. seln. 

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NIMBioS lecture on this topic: click here for ppt and notes, or here for video

For values of parameters used in animations, click here

For a list of symbols used in parameter table, click here

Graphical conventions: limiting values of 95% confidence ellipses for ornaments and preferences under natural selection alone, shown as bold blue or red ellipses.  Time course of those ellipses, shown as narrow ellipses.  Time courses of 95% ornament and preference data ellipses also shown as narrow ellipses, but they change shape through time.

 

Figure 3: Evolution of male ornaments is restrained when sexual selection is absent. The two axes are measurements for two ornament traits, scaled in units of within-population phenotypic standard deviation . The evolution of a single lineage mean is illustrated over the course of 500 generations in gray. The bivariate mean of the two traits is shown as a blue dot. The 95% confidence ellipse for diversification by natural selection is shown in blue. A black line connects the bivariate mean to the natural selection optimum. Past positions of the mean are shown as gray dots.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4: Sexual selection exaggerates the evolution of ornaments and mating preferences, producing a phenotypic tango (illustrated with sets of 100 lineages for 500 generations; Ne = 5000. The 95% confidence ellipses for diversification of ornaments and preferences by natural selection alone are shown as heavy blue and red ellipses, respectively. The 95% confidence ellipses for the sample of ornaments and preferences means  are shown as light blue and red ellipses, respectively.   (A) The evolution of the ornaments and preferences in the absence of sexual selection. (B) The evolution of ornaments and preferences in the presence of sexual selection is a tango. The positions of ornament and preference means for a particular lineage are shown as blue and red dots connected by a black line. (C) When stabilizing selection on ornaments and preferences is reversed (weak on ornaments, strong on preferences), extraordinary evolution of ornaments is eliminated. (D) Correlational natural selection on ornament and preference changes their 95% confidence ellipses from circles to inclined ellipses.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supplementary Figure 1: The extent of the radiation (dance floor) enlarges when natural selection on the preferences is relaxed (illustrated with sets of 100 lineages for 500 generations; Ne = 5000). Graphic conventions as in fig. 4. (A) Strong stabilizing selection on preferences. (B) Weak stabilizing selection on preferences.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supplementary Figure 2:  Stabilizing natural selection on the preferences defines the shape and the size of the radiation (illustrated with sets of 100 lineages for 500 generations; Ne = 5000). Graphic conventions as in fig. 4. (A) When stabilizing selection on the two preferences is asymmetric, so is the ornament radiation.  (B) When stabilizing selection on the two ornament is asymmetric, the ornament radiation instead mirrors the shape of selection on preferences.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supplementary Figure 3: A genetic correlation between the sexes is required for extraordinary evolution of preferences but not for extraordinary evolution of ornaments (illustrated with sets of 100 lineages for 500 generations; Ne = 5000). Graphic conventions as in fig. 4. (A) With no genetic correlation between the sexes, ornaments and preferences do not evolve outside the limits imposed by natural selection preferences. (B) With strong genetic correlation between the sexes, both ornaments and preferences evolve beyond bounds imposed my natural selection.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supplementary Figure 4: Strong mate choice increases the size of the sexual radiation and the tempo of the tango (illustrated with sets of 100 lineages for 500 generations; Ne = 5000). Graphic conventions as in fig. 4. (A) With weak mate choice, ornaments remain close to their natural selection optimum (B) Strong mate choice pulls ornaments far from their optimum.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supplementary Figure 6: Simulated evolution of ornaments with a moving optimum but no sexual selection.  The orange dots show past positions of the optimum, which moves by Brownian motion over a period of 500 generations.  Parameters  and conventions as in Fig.  3 but with the optimum moving a moderate rate.